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Introduction to 5G Spectral Efficiency 

5G Spectral efficiency is expected to be higher than 1 bit/s/Hz, with a peak of 6 bits/s/Hz for LTE. This means that 5G could potentially support multiple gigabits per second connections at the same time, enabling billions of devices and services to use the same spectrum in real-time while maintaining optimal speeds. 5G spectral efficiency is expected to be much better than the previous generations. The 5G system provides an ultra-high spatial resolution with a large number of users and various types of data traffic. This requires massive transmission capacity, including large-bandwidth, wide coverage, and low power consumption. The higher spectral efficiency of 5G networks means that much more data can be transmitted over the same amount of spectrum. 5G spectral efficiency is the amount of data that can be transmitted over a given bandwidth within a single area or cell. The higher the spectral efficiency of a device, the more information it is able to transmit.

5G NR (New Radio) spectral efficiency is a key enabler of the 5G platform and is a key performance parameter to guide system design and operation. As such, it is important to understand both what 5G NR spectral efficiency actually means and how it will be used in system design. This note describes the basics of spectral efficiencies, including what they are, how they are used today, and how they may be used in the future. The spectral efficiency of a communication technology is the bit rate per unit bandwidth and includes all of the necessary overhead channels. The 5G standard permits significantly higher throughput, which will be achieved with the help of carrier aggregation, massive MIMO, and enhanced OFDMA, but also requires more spectrum than previous generations. The amount of information that can be carried by a wireless carrier over a specific bandwidth of radio spectrum is called the spectral efficiency. Higher spectral efficiencies mean more information, devices and services can be supported on the same infrastructure. Spectral efficiency is a measurement of the amount of user throughput that can be achieved per unit of radio spectrum. It is expressed as bits per hertz, or bit/Hz.

Spectral Efficiency description 

The spectral efficiency of 5G will be substantially greater than current 4G LTE networks, and this means that it will be able to support many more users per cell site. The spectral efficiency of 5G cellular systems will be significantly higher than today's 4G LTE systems. In 5G, the spectral efficiency will scale to 1 bit/s/Hz with a target of 10 bits/s/Hz. 5G systems are expected to provide higher spectral efficiency as compared to 4G systems since the average transmit power of each user is significantly reduced. This is enabled through multiplexing schemes using MIMO and advanced coding techniques. The transmitters of 5G communications are able to use many more frequency bands, compared to 4G and 3G technologies. These bands allow more network capacity, so providers can offer more data services. 5G Spectral efficiency is a key technology for delivering an outstanding combination of data rates and latency, enabling unprecedented benefits for various applications. The 5G spectra efficiency is a measure of how efficiently the available spectrum is used by a wireless communication system. 5G spectral efficiency will be high due to large volumes of traffic, low latency & high frequency. 

5G spectral efficiency is typically expressed as bits per second per Hertz, so theoretically it can be any number. However, a maximum value of 3 bits/Hz has been suggested by some vendors and the ITU, representing an improvement over the current LTE network which offers 1.5 bits/Hz on average across its spectrum, and WiFi which offers 1.9 bits/Hz on average across its spectrum. A higher number means more information or throughput can be carried within a narrower bandwidth, which improves network capacity. 5G spectral efficiency will be key to implementing new 5G services. These new services will stress the spectrum, but there are many existing 3GPP bands and a number of new ones developed for 5G which provide the space needed to support these high-speed data rates. Spectral efficiency is a measure of the amount of data per unit of time that can be transmitted by an information-carrying signal. Since most wireless standards are defined by their maximum theoretical spectral efficiencies, techniques that operate in the higher parts of the spectrum have higher spectral efficiencies than those operating at lower frequencies. 5G will achieve a transmission rate of several gigabits per second and provides support for tens of thousands of simultaneously active users.

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