List of Top 20 Programming Languages 2018

For list of Top 10 Programming languages, please check our previous post

11. Delphi/Object Pascal

History

A team of Larry Tesler with Niklaus Wirth (inventor of Pascal) developed Object Pascal as an extension of Pascal which was needed to support MacApp. A similar extension was introduced by Borland in 1986 to Turbo Pascal product and Turbo Pascal 5.5 was developed in 1989 for DOS. A successor to Turbo Pascal was created in 1994 which is called Delphi. The official release of Delphi language was made in 1995 in USA.

What is Delphi/Object Pascal?

A branch of Pascal object-oriented derivatives is called Object Pascal which is known as Delphi’s primary programming language. In the first version of Delphi, name Object Pascal was used by Borland.the best known compiler is Delphi and is a successor of Borland Pascal and Turbo Pascal. Many Pascal dialects are supported by Free Pascal compiler which is an open-source Object Pascal compiler. PalmOS uses PocketStudio which is a Pascal-based IDE. Delphi writes open-source Object Pascal interpreters/scripting engines named Pascal Script and DWScript.

Who uses Delphi/Object Pascal?

  1. Nero Burning Rom
  2. Skype
  3. Macromedia DreamWeaver
  4. Embarcadero C++ Builder IDE
  5. Smart Mobile Studio
  6. Homesite
  7. FL Studio Pro
  8. InstallAware

What it is used for?

  1. To transform Pascal source code to JavaScript
  2. To generate Java ME bytecode

Advantages

  1. High speed, low memory use
  2. Integrated development environment
  3. Smartlinking
  4. Distribution independence
  5. Compatible
  6. Available for a lot of platforms on several architectures

Average salary

In USA, the average salary of a object Pascal developer is $101,832 per year.

12. R

History

An implementation of the S programming language in combination with lexical scoping semantics gives a new language named R which is inspired by scheme. Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman created R at the university of Auckland. In 1995, initial version was released and in 2000, a stable beta version was released.

What is R?

R, a programming language, provides a free software environment for statistical computing and graphics. Statisticians and data miners use R language to develop statistical software and data analysis. There is substantial increase in the popularity of R in the recent years that has been shown by polls, data miners surveys, and studies of databases of scholarly literature. C, Fortran, and R are used to write the source code of R. R has 12th ranking in the TIOBE Index in April, 2018.

Who uses R?

  1. Facebook
  2. Google
  3. Twitter
  4. Microsoft
  5. Uber
  6. Airbnb
  7. IBM
  8. ANZ

What it is used for?

  1. For Statistical computing
  2. For data analysis
  3. For graphics

Advantages

  1. A free and open source software
  2. No license restrictions
  3. Cross-platform
  4. Outstanding graphical capabilities

Average salary

In USA, the average salary of an R programmer is $83,779 per year.

13. Visual Basic

History

In 1991, Visual Basic 1.0 was introduced. A prototype form generator, developed by Alan Cooper and his company called Tripod, is used to derive the drag and drop design to create the user interface. In November 1992, Visual Basic 2.0 was released that provides an easy to use environment and improved speed. In 1993, Visual Basic 3.0 was released that came in both Standard and Professional Versions. Visual Basic 4.0 was released in August 1995 with three editions Standard, Professional, and Enterprise. In 1997, VB 5.0 was released for 32-bit versions of Windows. Visual Basic 6.0 was released in Mid 1998 that included the ability for creation of web-based applications. Word Basic, a variant of Visual Basic, is used by earlier versions of Microsoft Word.

What is Visual Basic?

Visual Basic, a third-generation event-driven programming language, is an integrated development environment (IDE)for its Component Object Model (COM) programming model. The language is easy to learn and use. It was derived from BASIC and graphical user interface (GUI) applications rapid application development (RAD) was enabled by using VB. It is used to provide access to databases using Data Access Objects, Remote Data Objects, or ActiveX Data Objects, and to create ActiveX controls and objects. The components provided by the Visual Basic program are used by programmer to create an application. Windows API is also used by the programs written in Visual Basic.

What it is used for?

  1. For creating Windows GUI apps
  2. For Excel Modeling
  3. To make Windows Forms Applications user interfaces
  4. To integrate COM components

Advantages

  1. Simple structure
  2. Supports rapid application development
  3. Provides a comprehensive interactive and context-sensitive online help system.

Average salary

In USA, the average salary of a Visual Basic developer is $79,351 per year.

14. Assembly Language

History

Assembly language was developed in 1960’s which is a low-level programming language for computer. To convert it to executable machine code, a utility program called assembler is used.

What is Assembly Language?

An assembly language is a low-level programming language for computer that is abbreviated as asm and is specific to computer architecture. It can also be known as symbolic machine code. To convert it to executable machine code, a utility program called assembler is used and the process is called assembly. The computational step in which an assembler run is called assembly time. Each low-level machine instruction or opcode is represented by using mnemonics. One or more operands are required by several operations to form complete instruction. Operands such as expressions of numbers, named constants, registers, and labels are taken by most of the assemblers. To control the assembly process, and for debugging, additional mechanisms are offered by many assemblers to facilitate development of program.

What it is used for?

  1. Code that must interact directly with the hardware
  2. In an embedded processor or DSP
  3. Program that uses processor-specific instructions
  4. To create vectorized functions
  5. When extreme optimization is required

Advantages

  1. Programs are replaceable by mnemonics
  2. Memory Efficient
  3. No need to keep track of memory locations
  4. Faster in speed
  5. Fewer instructions are required
  6. Hardware oriented

Average salary

In USA, the average salary of an Assembly language programmer is $75,000 per year.

15. Swift

History

In July 2010, Chris Lattner started the development of Swift in collaboration with many other programmers at Apple. The idea of Swift was taken from Objective-C, Rust, Haskell, Ruby, Python, C#, CLU and so on. The first app written in Swift was the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) application that was publicly released on 2 June, 2014. Swift Sandbox website by IBM was announced in December 2015. In order to teach people how to code in Swift, an ipad exclusive app, named Swift Playgrounds, was announced by Apple during WWDC 2016. There are various versions of Swift and Swift 4.1 is the latest version released on 29 March, 2018.

What is Swift?

Swift is a programming language developed for iOS, macOS, watchOS, tvOS, and Linux by Apple Inc. and has multiple paradigms. It is a general-purpose, compiled programming language. The open source LLVM compiler framework is used to build it. Many core concepts associated with Objective C are supported by the language. Swift was ranked in the top 10 in TIOBE index in March 2017.

Who uses Swift?

  1. Apple
  2. IBM
  3. Uber
  4. Airbnb
  5. Lyft
  6. LinkedIn

What it is used for?

  1. For developing application and softwares for apple.

Advantages

  1. Easy to Understand
  2. Scalability
  3. Easy to Maintain
  4. Fast
  5. Optimized Memory-Usage

Average salary

In USA, the average salary of a swift developer is $115,333 per year.

16. Perl

History

In 1987, Larry wall started working on Perl and version 1.0 was released in December 1987 to the comp.sources.misc newsgroup. In 1988, Perl 2 was released that has a better regular expression engine and in 1989, Perl 3 was released that support binary data streams. The current stable version was released on 22 November, 2017 an is named as Perl 5.26.

What is Perl?

Perl is a general-purpose, high-level programming language that is interpreted and dynamic. This language was developed in order to make report processing easier. There are various other languages such as, C, shell script (sh), AWK, and sed, from which features are borrowed by this language. Perl 5 is popular as a CGI scripting language and is also used for system administration, network programming, finance, bioinformatics, and other applications, such as for GUIs.

Who uses Perl?

  1. IMDB
  2. Amazon
  3. BBC
  4. Booking.com
  5. Duckduckgo

What it is used for?

  1. For system administration
  2. For network programming
  3. In finance
  4. In bioinformatics
  5. For GUI’s

Advantages

  1. Procedural in nature
  2. Performs automatic data-typing and memory management
  3. Supports complex data structures, first-class functions and an object-oriented programming model
  4. Easy and simple

Average salary

In USA, the average salary of a Perl developer is $81,280 per year.

17. Matlab

History

MATLAB was developed in late 1970’s by the chairman of the computer science department at the University of New Mexico, Cleve Moler to give access to LINPACK and EISPACK. In 1984, Mathworks was developed to continue the development of MATLAB and JACKPACK is the name given to these rewritten libraries. LAPACK, newer set of libraries, were used for matrix manipulations in 2000.

What is MATLAB?

MATLAB stands for MATrix LABoratory which is a multi-paradigm environment for numerical computing. It is a proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks that allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, algorithms implementation, user interfaces creation, and interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, C#, Java, Fortran and Python. MATLAB also provides access to symbolic computing abilities by using an optional toolbox that uses the MuPAD symbolic engine. In order to add graphical multi-domain simulation and model-based design for dynamic and embedded systems, an additional package, Simulink, is also included. MATLAB has approximately 1 million users as of 2017.

Who uses MATLAB?

  1. General Electric
  2. Continental AG
  3. Larsen & Toubro: L&T India
  4. AIRBUS
  5. Capgemini

What it is used for?

  1. For Image processing
  2. For the teaching of linear algebra, numerical analysis
  3. By control engineers

Advantages

  1. A large database of built-in algorithms
  2. Test algorithms immediately without recompilation
  3. Call to external libraries
  4. Technical support
  5. Easy and fast

Average salary

In USA, the average salary of a Matlab developer is $76,102 per year.

18. Objective-C

History

Brad Cox and Tom Love created Objective-C in the early 1980’s at Stepstone. To add some of the abilities of Smalltalk, a pre-processor for C was written by Cox. After that he implemented object-oriented extension to the C language and called it OOPC (Object-Oriented Pre-Compiler). Productivity Products International (PPI), a new venture was made by Love and Cox to commercialize the product.

What is Objective-C?

Objective-C is a general-purpose,object-oriented programming language that adds some of the abilities of Smalltalk to the C programming language. Apple uses it as its main programming language for the OS X and iOS operating systems. .m filename extensions are used by the 'implementation' program files written in Objective-C source code. .h extensions are used by Objective-C 'header/interface' files and .mm extensions are used to denote Objective-C++ files.

Who uses Objective-C?

  1. Amazon
  2. Apple
  3. GitHub
  4. Ambientia
  5. Sportsy
  6. Edify
  7. Uber
  8. Pinterest
  9. Tictail

What it is used for?

  1. To develop iOS and OS X apps

Advantages

  1. Simple and easy to learn
  2. Small, unambiguous syntax
  3. Dynamic binding

Average salary

In USA, the average salary of an Objective-C Programmer is $73,720 per year.

19. GO

History

In November, 2009, the announcement of the language was made. In March 2012, version 1.0 was released. Since version 1.5, the initial GO compiler has been self-hosting. GO language was originated while Google engineers Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson performing an experiment to design a new language so that common criticisms of other languages were resolved.

What is GO?

GO is a programming language that is referred to as Golang that is statically typed in C tradition with addition of various features such as memory safety, garbage collection, structural typing, and CSP-style concurrent programming. Google developed free and open source compiler and other tools. Go consists of

a syntax and environment adopting patterns more common in dynamic languages and distinctive approaches to particular problems. Number of built-in types are included in the language. Class inheritance is replaced by using embedding and interfaces.

Who uses GO?

  1. Google
  2. Facebook
  3. Twitter
  4. YouTube
  5. Apple
  6. Dropbox
  7. Mozilla Firefox
  8. Github
  9. Uber

What it is used for?

  1. To compile the human readable code to binaries
  2. For handling high volumes of geofence-based queries
  3. For deploying linux containers

Advantages

  1. Statically typed and scalable
  2. Productive and readable
  3. Integrated development environments are not required
  4. Supports networking and multiprocessing
  5. Fast compilation time
  6. Concise, simple and safe

Average salary

In USA, the average salary of a GO developer is $100,819 per year.

20. PL/SQL

History

In 1992, PL/SQL was released as an optional extension to Oracle 6. It works for the procedural languages associated with other relational databases. With each successive release of the Oracle Database, the functionality of PL/SQL can also be extended.

What is PL/SQL?

PL/SQL is Oracle’s procedural extension for SQL that stands for Procedural Language/Structured Query Language which is available in databases of Oracle, Times Ten, and IBM DB2. With each successive release of the Oracle Database, the functionality of PL/SQL can also be extended. The procedural language elements such as conditions and loops are included in the language. Constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers are also declared by using PL/SQL. PL/SQL collections also support arrays. PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers can be easily created and stored in database so that applications can reuse them.

Who uses PL/SQL?

  1. TCS
  2. Infogain Corporation
  3. iPlace USA, Inc.
  4. First Republic Bank
  5. Luxoft Holding Inc

What it is used for?

  1. To return a set of values
  2. To perform database operations

Advantages

  1. Supports SQL
  2. Closer integration with Oracle leading to better performance
  3. Supports object-oriented programming

Average salary

In USA, the average salary of a PL/SQL developer is $96,877 per year.