With NFV management and organization (MANO) , management of NFV is now addressed by the MANO stream. It is the ETSI-defined framework for the management and orchestration of all resources in the cloud data center. This comprises computing, networking,storage and virtual machine resources. NFV MANO is have three functional blocks :

  • NFV orchestrator
  • VNF manager
  • Virtualized infrastructure manager

NFV orchestrator

NFV orchestration is used to coordinate the resources and networks require to setup cloud-based services and applications. This process uses a variety of virtualization software and industry standard hardware.

SDN Computing platforms

  • Opendaylight
  • Cisco ACI
  • ONOS
  • Project Floodlight
  • Beacon
  • Juniper contrail
  • vortiQa
  • POX
  • Nuage


Virtualized network functions

A VNF takes on the authority of handling specific network functions.These functions run on one or more VM’s on top of hardware networking infrastructure. VNFs can help enlarge the network adaptability and celerity. Software implementation of the legacy network functions. Network function able of running over NFVI. Network function orchestrator by NFVO and VNF manager.

VNF Architecture

VNF Functional view

VNF interfaces

  • SWA-1
  • SWA-2
  • SWA-3
  • SWA-4
  • SWA-5

VNF - Design and properties

It is divided as :

  • Internal structure
  • Life cycle
  • VNFC states
  • Load balancing

VNF - internal structure

VNF - Instantiation

There are two ways to achieve this :

Parallelizable : instantiation multiple times per VNF instance but with constraints on the number.

Non - parallelizable : instantiation once per VNF instance.

VNF - states

Stateful VNFC

VNFC that needs to handle state information of the VNF

Stateless VNFC

VNFC that does not require to handle the state information

VNF - load balancer

VNF - internal load balancer

1 VNF instance seen as 1 logical NFV by peer NF

VNF has at least one VNFC which can be replicated

Internal load balancer VNFC which scatters/collects information/packets/flows/sessions.

VNF - external load balancer

N VNF instances seen as 1 logical NFV by peer NF

External load balancer which will be another VNF which scatters/collects information/packets/flows/session to/from the different VNF instances.

End-to-end load balancing

N VNF instance seen as N logical NFV by peer NF

Peer NF itself contains load balancing functionality

VNF lifecycle management

  • Onboarding
  • Deploying
  • Monitoring
  • Healing
  • Updating
  • Undeploy

VNF forwarding graph

It is used to orchestrate and control traffic through VNFs. The VNF-FG define the graph of logical links connecting VNF nodes for the purpose of describing the traffic flow between these VNFs.

VNF-FG1 : for control traffic

VNF-FG2 : for user traffic


It is a set of data plane libraries and network interface controller drivers for fast packet processing. DPDK allow to build applications that can utilize to process packets faster.

DPDK components

EAL : Environment Abstraction Layer

  • Memory manager
  • Buffer manager
  • Queue manager
  • Packet flow classification
  • Poll mode drivers


It is a specification that permits a PCIe device to appear to be multiple separate physical PCIe devices.

SR-IOV need assistance in the BIOS as well as in the operating system hypervisor.

The SR-IOV provides distinct virtual functions to distinct virtual components on a physical server machine. It uses physical functions (PF’s) and virtual functions (VF’s) to manage global for the SR-IOV devices.

PFs are full PCIe functions that comprises the SR-IOV extended abilities which is used to find and control the SR-IOV functionality. For SR-IOV PCIe devices to function, they are required to have appropriate BIOS and hardware support, as well as SR-IOV support in the guest driver or hypervisor instance.