D2D communications :

Device to device communications refers to the technology that allows user equipment to communicate with each other with or without the involvement of the network infrastructure such as Access points or base stations. It refers to communication between devices , which can be mobiles and vehicles. It opens device centric communications that opens no direct communications with network infrastructure.

In conventional cellular systems, devices are not allowed to communicate directly with each other , the communications occurs through base stations. A cellular network consists of cellular tier and device tier, cellular tier consists of macro cell that means network to device communications and another tier is device tier that means device to device communications. The D2D architecture taxonomy consists of four designs : device relaying with operator controlled link establishment , direct D2D communications with operator controlled link establishment , device relaying with device controlled link establishment , direct D2D communications with device controlled link establishment.

D2D communications faces various challenges , the first challenge is security, the parties sending and receiving data may not be accessible by the relays, data security should be must in such communications, there should be security, key management and attack identification. The second challenge is interference management, D2D power control, admission control and relay management should be there in D2D communications. The third challenge is resource allocation, for channel management, resource allocation should be there.

The ever growing demand for high data rates and capacity require 5G systems . cooperative communications represents a new class of wireless communications techniques where network nodes help each other in relaying information to have spatial diversity advantages. D2D functionality can also play a vital role in mobile cloud computing and it facilitates effective sharing of resources like spectrum, computational power, applications etc for users who are in proximity. D2D communications will be beneficial for operators as well because it can take some load off the network in local areas. D2D communications can be of critical use in case of disasters. In case of natural disasters like earthquakes etc an urgent communication network can be setup with the help of D2D functionality in short time, replacing damaged communication network.


D2D communication helps to increase spectral efficiency, it will enhance user experience and expand communication applications.

Increasing spectral efficiency : in D2D communications, user data is directly transmitted between the terminals without routing through the cellular network .Resources between D2D users, D2D networks and cellular networks can be reused. With this reuse of the resources, spectral efficiency could be improved.

Enhancing user experience : with the development of mobile services and technologies, short range data sharing between nearby users , small scale and social commercial activities as well as location based services will be a greater source for growing business platform. D2D technology based on nearby user discovery will enhance user experience.

Expanding communications applications : conventional wireless architecture is infrastructure based. The network will completely fail in case there is any damage to the core network or the base stations. With D2D communications there is an option to have ad-hoc networks. In case if there is any case of damage to the network infrastructure, ad-hoc nodes are there to provide peer to peer communications and even access to cellular networks.

5G D2D applications :

Local service : in this service, user data is directly transmitted between terminals and doesn’t involves network side. This service is mainly used for social apps. Various apps which are based on proximity service are an application of D2D communications. With D2D discovery, users those are in proximity, can find use other users, they can share data among themselves, play games etc. local advertising service which is also proximity service will prove maximum benefits for the users. Another application of local service is mobile data offloading for media services like HD videos. In this there is a delivery of media services in D2D modes to the users.

Emergency communications : when natural disasters like earthquakes occurs, traditional communication network may get damaged or even collapse . this problem in case of natural disasters can be solved by introducing D2D communications. With this, ad-hoc network can be established which could be used for such communications.

IOT enhancement : the goal of developing mobile communications is to establish an extensive interconnected network that contains various types of terminals. This is the idea behind developing IOT in cellular communications. New devices will have IOT feature in it , concept of autonomous driving, automatically controlling vehicles and various devices will be feature of IOT. using D2D discovery, vehicles can detect and identify devices in its proximity . because there are many IOT terminals in a 5G network, access load has become a serious issue in this case.

Various other applications includes multi user MIMO enhancements, cooperative relaying, virtual MIMO could be possible with this.

5G D2D techniques :

D2D discovery : this involves detecting and identifying nearby D2D terminals. For multi-hop D2D networks , this technique should be considered in combination with routing and efficient discovery and ultra low latencies.

D2D synchronization : scenarios like outdoor coverage and multi-hop D2D networks could be challenge for D2D synchronization.

Wireless resource management : the resource management in D2D communications is different and complex as compared to traditional networks. It involves unicast, multicast and broadcast signals.

Power control and interference management is also an important issue in D2D communications.

Switching of communication modes from D2D to cellular links could also be an important issue in this case.

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