IOT in 5G

5g technology is a unique combination of high speed internet access , low latency , high reliability & seamless coverage which will support no. of vehicles & transport infrastructure. 5G platform will impact many industries like automotive , entertainment, agriculture , manufacturing and IT. As per the research forecast “IOT will account for one quarter of the global 41 million 5G connections in 2024”, out of these ¾ of the devices will be auto industry via embedded vehicle connections.

There are wide range of applications that will benefit from 5G ultra fast networks and real time responsiveness of the network.These properties of 5G technology are very important for many applications of IOT e.g self driven cars , intelligent transportation which demands very low latency .This will be a great boom for interactive mobile gaming which is bandwidth hungry application. 5G technology enables us to control more devices remotely in various applications where real time network performance is critical, like remote control of vehicles. It focuses on worker safety as well as monitoring environment. 5G technology is not focusing on improving speed , but this will prove best in evolution of business etc. IOT in 5G have excelled in connecting number of phones , tablets and other devices, however connecting cars , meters, sensors require more advanced business models.

5G is a better option for IOT applications like smart city projects as other technologies like wifi, bluetooth or any short range communication technology provides limited coverage. 5g has seamless coverage which will be beneficial for many applications of IOT.

IOT has many applications which demands low data rates e.g wireless healthcare where devices like biosensors , health monitors etc need to send patient data to the hospital servers which demands low data rates whereas some applications demands high data rates e.g autonomous driving.

With the rise of cloud computing technology along with there is a continuous increase in internet backbone traffic and more sophisticated cellular core networks. There are mainly three types of cloud : data centres , backbone IP networks , cellular core networks , these clouds are responsible for computation, storage ,

communication and network management. When these clouds are near to the end users , we can define them as “fog” and the term as fog computing. These are empowered by latest chips, radios & sensors, the fog can manage computation, storage, network management near to the end user. An edge computing platform which we can use in home gateways ,called as Paradrop which allows developers to leverage computing resources in the customer premises.

IOT is a novel computing platform that is rapidly gaining space in terms of modern communication technologies. Idea of IOT is presence of variety of things or objects like RFID tags, sensors, actuators, smartphones etc that are capable to interact with each other and also with their neighbors to reach common goals through unique addressing schemes and reliable communication media over the internet.

Internet architecture board has recommended architecture of IOT made up of three levels: Applications, cloud computing and sensor network. Lowest level corresponds to sensors and communication between them as machine to machine communications.

Second level is occupied by cloud computing , the service platform to which data is intended. Third level contains concern applications and services offered to the customers.

Device layer represents various physical devices & controllers which we can refer as “things in IOT”. in the ecosystem of IOT there are various steps and technologies as :

Identity, capture , connect, integrate and network. In identification we need to know how to precisely determine which object is connected to what, in which way and in which location. Capture plays a role of bridge between physical and virtual worlds , sensors are indispensable. Connecting deals with linking objects with one another so that they can exchange data in a more autonomous manner. In integration there is a connection of central offices to the virtual world with the help of wireless communication methods. In networking , users want to be able to interact remotely with their objects.

IOT in 5G deals with

Direct device to device communication

Massive machine communication

Networks in motion

Ultra dense networks

Ultra reliable communications

5G benefits for IOT:

Aim of 5G technology is eMBB: enhanced mobile broadband, URLLC : ultra reliable low latency communications , mMTC : massive Machine type communications. Because of these features , it plays an important role in next generations IOT systems:

Automotive : one of the primary use case of 5G system will be connected cars coupled with Virtual reality and augmented reality. Vehicular services which involves direct communications and network oriented services for autonomous driving.

Industrial :5G technology will provide more reliable network for industries.

Healthcare : real time networks will be achieved using 5G technology. This will be beneficial for health care industry.

Communications backhaul : communication service providers are going to replace fiber network with wireless broadband.

5G technology has many challenges:

Operation across multiple spectrum bands : for 5G operation,a combination of multiple frequency bands : low , mid and high frequency bands will be used.

Preparing the network core : introduction of new technologies like NFV, SDN , massive MIMO and cloud radio access network , requires changes in the network core.

Upgradation from 4G to 5G technology

Ensuring data interoperability : it is essential to achieve interoperability between User equipments and 5G network.

Establishing 5G business models: to establish low cost and high performance implementations of 5G networks which will be challenging.

5G enabler of IOT :

5G technology is considered as enabler of IOT technology . In the scenario of IOT low energy consumption devices are expected to be in the Radio resource control layer (RRC) idle mode for most of the time so the random access (RA) procedures will be handled by PUCCH (physical uplink control channel ) most of the time. In order to prevent high machine to machine (M2M) traffic adversely affecting human to human (H2H) traffic new random access procedures are required to define as a feature of ACB (Access Call barring). The core principle of ACB is to give priority to users so that high priority users do not suffer from congestion caused by low priority users.The emerging 5G - IOT scenarios extends sensor based IOT capabilities to robots, actuators and drones for distributed coordination and also for low latency communication between things .





Femto cloud:

It is a system which is designed so and implemented to use mobile devices to provide mobile computing services at the edge of the network. It is designed to cluster co-located mobile devices in environments where mobile devices presence times can be estimated. These environments like coffee shops, theatres, classrooms etc where people carry mobile devices. femto cloud architecture consists of control devices and set of executing mobile devices . The main task of control device is managing the femto cloud , to distribute tasks across different devices , to gather results and then to interface with various task originators where as the mobile devices are responsible for executing tasks & assisting the control devices..

Fog computing:

This is also known as fogging, it is a term which is defined as decentralized computing infrastructure in which data, computing , storage and applications are distributed near to the end users. The goal of fogging is to reduce the amount of data transported to the cloud for computation purposes. That is the reason this is mainly done for security and compliance reasons.





Role of fog computing in the future of automobiles :

Modern automobile is a computing rich electronic system on wheels, with more than 100 computers per vehicle. This trend is motivated by no. of requirements and developments , including the need for connectivity of automobiles to sources of travel information and entertainment. The need for vehicle - to - vehicle and vehicle - to- infrastructure exchanges for accident prevention , the move towards more dynamic and modern vehicle maintenance. Future automobiles will look more powerful , compact, scalable data centres on wheels or fog computing nodes on wheels travelling within highways and cities equipped with powerful computing capabilities at their intersections and along their pathways. Fog computing is an ideal bridge between modern information technologies and operational technologies like introduction of standard networking technologies such as Ethernet, wifi, bluetooth etc.,Adoption of modern security approaches , exposure to models of computation and resource virtualization , real time , reliable, secure, safety and system acceptance are requirements of critical systems.

Mobility on the ground :

The future of technology involves a number of mobile devices. There are number of crowdsensing applications which will take benefit from fog based IOT services. There are several sensors within a vehicle those are working under a Fog. fog has to take into account the type of sensors, the way they are being powered , data pattern, frequency , mobility speed and mobility pattern while deciding about reasonable resources.

Mobility in the air :

Internet of drones : studies on drones also known as unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAV’s) are also getting matured and prototypes are being developed for them. Amazon & Google are working on delivery drones for goods and food. For such flying objects , resource estimation would be a way beyond conventions. Internet of drones would require much faster processing and high bandwidth.

When it comes to sensitive data and applications like location based, health care and military, data requires to be concealed before sending to the cloud.

Fog’s role within ULSS :

ULSS stands for ultra large scale systems : these systems can exploit the location of the Fog nodes and their hierarchical organisation to communicate and to become aware of their context. Fog nodes have visibility over a wider geographical range than the one available to individual “things”. Fog nodes can provide a deeper vision in time . these nodes can transmit information such as road conditions to optimize cars trajectories in real time. “Things” under a Fog node coverage can use the computational resources of that node to analyze measurements and perform other tasks. When “things” move out of the range they get disconnected from that node. If another node is available in the next location, the same process can continue. This technique eliminates the need of migrating data from one node to the next one because the “thing” itself carries the necessary information.

Services of fog layer :

increasing attacks on users privacy reveal the economical importance of sensitive data for both companies and criminals . the need to reduce time to market has led companies to deploy edge computing systems without security and privacy by design. Fog computing is one of the most predominant examples of edge systems. It can be described as relocation of computing preferably closer to the user.

IOT, Fog computing and blockchain :

Several advantages of using blockchain technology that in theory can potentially help to improve privacy and security, majority through decentralization. User entities must be kept private and this can be accomplished when using a blockchain. The nodes within the network validate the transaction and the users status by using known algorithms. As they are decentralized by design, blockchain offer scalability and robustness by using the resources from all participating nodes. IOT devices normally have limited resources that are not enough to properly support cryptocurrency mining due to computational cost. It is desirable for IOT applications to have low latency and low traffic in the network. Mining of blocks is time consuming and creates signalling overhead traffic , which is undesirable . moreover , blockchain doesn’t properly scale with the ever increasing introduction of nodes in the network.

IOTA :

It is designed to be as lightweight as possible , unlike the complex and duty blockchain operations of Bitcoin. It is based on new distributed ledger, the Tangle which overcomes the deficiencies of blockchain designs and introduces a new way of reaching consensus in a decentralized peer to peer system.

New approaches for IOT have been proposed with introduction of Fog and mist.

Main goal of these new paradigms is to decrease network latency to cloud servers that can located far away from end devices. This can be seen as a combination of smart sensors with built in computational capabilities ( mist computing ) with nearby processing stations ( fog computing).

Self aware fog computing in private and secure spheres :

As our capacity for monitoring and measuring objects , activities and processes is growing exponentially. Wearable sensors for measuring our leisure and sports activities as well as our health conditions have proliferated and gained acceptance. Our homes are becoming increasingly smart as they are equipped with cameras , motion detectors and environmental sensors that provide data for air conditioning controllers, surveillance and medical monitoring . the advances of sensing , computation and communication technology are also being utilized in military applications.

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