21. Lisp


In 1958, John McCarthy invented Lisp while he was working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Steve Russell was the first person who implemented Lisp on an IBM 704 computer while he realized that in machine language the Lisp eval function could be easily implemented. In 1962, Tim Hart and Mike Levin at MIT complete the first Lisp compiler, written in Lisp. Arc, Hy, Nu, Liskell, and LFE are new dialects of Lisp. The two major streams of Lisp development are Common Lisp and Scheme.

What is Lisp?

Lisp, referred to as LISt Processor, is a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation that has a long history and is belonged to computer programming languages. It is a high-level programming language. Common Lisp and Scheme are the two general-purpose dialects of Lisp. It is a practical mathematical notation for computer programs that was influenced by the notation of Alonzo Church's lambda calculus. Computer science has used ideas from Lisp that includes tree data structures, automatic storage management, dynamic typing, conditionals, higher-order functions, recursion, the self-hosting compiler,[6] and the read–eval–print loop. The major data structures of Lisp are Linked lists and are used to make Lisp source code. All program code is written as s-expressions, or parenthesized lists.

Who uses Lisp?

  1. Cleartrip
  2. Tachyon Technologies
  3. GrammaTech
  4. Alphacet, LLC
  5. Tilton Technology

What it is used for?

  1. For Animation and Graphics
  2. For AI, Bioinformatics, B2B and E-Commerce
  3. For Data Mining, Electronic Design Automation/Semiconductor applications, Expert Systems, Finance, Intelligent Agents
  4. For Knowledge Management, Mechanical Computer Aided Design (CAD), Modeling and Simulation
  5. For Natural Language, Optimization, Research, Risk Analysis, Scheduling, Telecom, and Web Authoring


  1. Provides concise, quick coding using powerful high-level constructs
  2. Load balancing
  3. Object oriented

Average salary

In USA, average income of a typical Lisp developer is $91,311 per year.

22. SAS


In 1966, the development of SAS had started by Anthony Barr. The National Institute of Health funded the project and was intended to improve crop yields by analyzing the agricultural data. The software's statistical routines were developed by James Goodnight who joined Barr and both became the project leaders. The new multiple regression and analysis of variance routines were integrated by Barr and Goodnight in 1968. The funding of the project was lost after first release of SAS in 1972. To complement Base SAS, number of components are released by SAS in 1980s and 1990s. The Text Miner software was released in 2002 that analyzes text data. SAS version 9.0 was released in 2004. Project Unity was announced in 2008 that was designed to integrate data quality, data integration and master data management. Enterprise Miner 7.1 was released by company in 2011. Several new products were announced by the company at the 2015 SAS Global Forum.

What is SAS?

Statistical Analysis System, abbreviated as SAS, is developed by SAS Institute to provide advanced analytics, multivariate analyses, business intelligence, data management, and predictive analytics. It is a software suite that uses a variety of sources to mine, alter, manage and retrieve data and to perform statistical analysis on it. To retrieve and manipulate data, DATA steps are used by SAS program and to analyze the data, PROC steps are used. A series of statements is consisted in each step.

Who uses SAS?

  1. HDFC
  2. SBI
  3. Google
  4. Facebook
  5. Twitter
  6. Netflix
  7. Accenture
  8. SAS
  9. Dell Advanced Analytics
  10. RBS

What it is used for?

  1. To analyze data
  2. To retrieve and manipulate data
  3. To manage data
  4. To integrate data quality, data integration and master data management


  1. Reduced development time
  2. Controls the costs of data integration
  3. Increases returns on existing IT investments
  4. Reusable, easily modified
  5. Embedded data quality processing

Average salary

In USA, average income of a typical SAS developer is $77,904 per year.

23. Scratch


In 2003, the first desktop-only version of Scratch was developed by Lifelong Kindergarten group at the MIT Media Lab. On May 9, 2013, Scratch 2 was released in which custom blocks were defined. Scratch 2 is available online as of 2017. Scratch 3 is currently in development.

What is Scratch?

Scratch is a visual programming language. Interactive stories, games and animations can be created by using Scratch that can be shared and discussed with one another. It is designed to help children learn to think creatively, reason systematically and work collaboratively. It is translated into 70+ languages and is used in homes, schools, and after-school clubs in every country in the world.

Who uses Scratch?

  1. In homes
  2. In schools
  3. After school clubs

What it is used for?

  1. To create interactive stories and games.
  2. To create animations


  1. It is a free program
  2. It is used across curricula and students and teachers
  3. Available in more than 70+ languages
  4. Used by people of all ages.

Average salary

In USA, average income of a Scratch developer is $98,616 per year.

24. D Language


In December 2001, D was released by Walter Bright of Digital Mars and in January 2007, it reached to version 1.0. The members of D community created Tango with D 1.0’s release which is an alternative runtime and standard library. The first version of D2 was released in June 2007 in order to introduce breaking changes to the language. D development moved to GitHub in January 2011. D v1.076 was the final D1 release announced on 31 December, 2012. The D Language was accepted for inclusion in GCC on 21 June, 2017.

What is D?

D is an object-oriented, imperative, multi-paradigm system programming language. It is a distinct language in which some core C++ features have been redesigned. It is also inspired from other languages, such as Java, Python, Ruby, C#, and Eiffel. The performance and safety of compiled languages are combined with the expressive power of modern dynamic languages in the design. Idiomatic D code is shorter and memory safe as well as faster as compared to C++ code. To reduce the occurrence of bugs bounds checking, design by contract features were added. Faster development is allowed due to various features such as type inference, automatic memory management and syntactic sugar.

Who uses D?

  1. ebay
  2. Facebook
  3. Netflix
  4. Microline
  5. Putao

What it is used for?

  1. For AAA games
  2. For a JavaScript virtual machine
  3. For an operating system kernel
  4. For GPU programming
  5. For web development
  6. For numerical analysis,
  7. For GUI applications,
  8. For a passenger information system


  1. Compile time execution
  2. Handles memory effortlessly
  3. Simple
  4. Simple syntax parsing aspects

Average salary

In USA, average income of a D developer is $104,300 per year.



In 1959, CODASYL designed COBOL and was based on design work of previous programming language by Grace Hopper referred to as grandmother of COBOL. US Department of Defense made an effort to create a portable programming language for data processing. The standardization of the language was done in 1968 and revised for four times. It was extended to support structured and object-oriented programming. ISO/IEC 1989:2014 is the current standard.

What is COBOL?

COBOL stands for common business-oriented language is a compiled English-like, imperative, procedural, object-oriented computer programming language that is designed for business use. Companies and governments use it in business, finance, and administrative systems. The legacy applications deployed on mainframe computers still use COBOL. An English-like syntax is used in COBOL statements that are self-documenting and highly readable. Its code is split into four divisions i.e. identification, environment, data and procedure.

Who uses COBOL?

  1. IBM
  2. BNY Mellon
  3. Deloitte
  4. Accenture
  5. Capital One
  6. Morgan Stanley
  7. Norfolk Southern
  8. Visa

What it is used for?

  1. For programming business applications


  1. Robust
  2. Easily handles huge processing volumes
  3. Easy to develop, use, and maintain
  4. Easy to read
  5. Portable

Average salary

In USA, average income of a COBOL developer is $69,889 per year.

26. ABAP


In 1983, ABAP was first appeared which is designed by SAP SE. The concept of Logical Databases (LDBs) was included in this language in which a high level of abstraction was provided from the basic database level(s). SAP released ABAP Objects which is an object-oriented extension to ABAP in 1999. ABAP was used to write most of the basic functions by 2001.

What is ABAP?

ABAP referred to as Advanced Business Application Programming is created by SAP SE which is the German software company and is a high-level programming language. The SAP application servers use ABAP along with Java. The SAP database is used to store all the programs in two forms i.e. source code and generated code. ABAP code can be executed by entering the transaction code. There are two types of executable programs i .e. Reports and Module pools. A set of plugins used to develop ABAP is known as ABAP in Eclipse.

Who uses ABAP?

  1. Colgate-Palmolive
  3. Star Cruise
  4. Shell

What it is used for?

  1. To develop the SAP R/3 platform
  2. To develop custom reports
  3. To develop interfaces


  1. Encapsulation of classic screens in function modules
  2. Use of function modules

Average salary

In USA, average income of an ABAP developer is $85,159 per year.

27. Dart


On 10 October, 2011, Google originally developed Dart programming language at the GOTO conference in Aarhus, Denmark. It is standardized by Ecma and its stable release is 1.24.3 (archive) that was released on 13 December, 2017.

What is Dart?

It is a general-purpose programming language which is used to build web, server and mobile applications, and for Internet of Things (IoT) devices. It is an open-source software that uses a C-style syntax to trans-compile into JavaScript.

It is a language that is is an object-oriented, class defined, and single inheritance. interfaces, mixins, abstract classes, reified generics, static typing and a sound type system is supported by the language.

Who uses Dart?

  1. Flutter
  2. Google fiber
  3. Adobe
  4. EasyInsure
  5. Mandrill

What it is used for?

  1. To create smooth animations and transitions
  2. To build web, server and mobile applications
  3. For Internet of Things (IoT) devices.


  1. Optional Statically Typed Annotations
  2. Default and Named Function Parameters
  3. A Better DOM Library
  4. Easy and scalable
  5. Asynchronous Library

Average salary

In USA, average income of a Dart developer is $93,210 per year.

28. Transact-SQL

What is Transact-SQL?

Transact-SQL is a proprietary extension from Microsoft and Sybase to SQL which is used to interact with relational database. For inclusion of procedural programming, local variables, various support functions for string processing, date processing, mathematics, etc. and changes to the DELETE and UPDATE statements, SQL standard is expanded to T-SQL. Microsoft SQL Server is used by T-SQL.

Who uses Transact-SQL?

  1. Microsoft
  2. ARUP Laboratories

Average salary

In USA, average income of a Transact-SQL developer is $85,324 per year.

29. Fortran


A proposal to develop a practical alternative to assembly language for IBM 704 mainframe computer programming, a proposal was submitted by John W. Backus to his superiors in late 1953. Richard Goldberg, Sheldon F. Best, Harlan Herrick, Peter Sheridan, Roy Nutt, Robert Nelson, Irving Ziller, Lois Haibt, and David Sayre were consisted in Backus' historic FORTRAN team. In October 1956, the first manual for FORTRAN was appeared. In April 1957, the first FORTRAN compiler was delivered. The versions of fortran for the IBM 709, 650, 1620, and 7090 computers were available by 1960. Over 40 FORTRAN compilers were existed by 1963. 32 statements were contained in the initial release of FORTRAN for the IBM 704. In 1958, Fortran II was appeared. in 1958, Fortran III was developed in which inline assembly code was also allowed among other features. Fortran 2008 was the most recent standard that was approved in September 2008.

What is Fortran?

Fortran, stands for Formula Translation, is a programming language that is general-purpose and compiled imperative that is used for numeric computation and scientific computing. This language is developed for high performance computing. There are various versions of Fortran each of which adds extensions to the previous version of language and are always compatible with the prior versions. Support for structured programming has also been added to the successive versions. The character-based data (FORTRAN 77), array programming, modular programming and generic programming (Fortran 90), high performance Fortran (Fortran 95), object-oriented programming (Fortran 2003) and concurrent programming (Fortran 2008) are also easily processed.

Who uses Fortran?

  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory
  2. Lockheed Martin
  3. Cae Inc
  4. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, LLC
  5. Sandia Corporation

What it is used for?

  1. For large scale numerical computations
  2. In super-computing tasks, eg. astronomy, weather and climate modeling
  3. For hydrological modeling, optimization, satellite simulation and data analysis
  4. In computational fluid dynamics, computational chemistry, computational economics and computational physics


  1. Provides greater expressive power,
  2. Enhances safety and regularity
  3. Improves portability between different machine ranges.
  4. Dynamic storage

Average salary

In USA, average income of a FORTRAN developer is $94,194 per year.

30. Clojure


Clojure was created by Rich Hickey and the language was first appeared in 2007. Before the public release of the language, 2½ years were spent by Hickey to work on it. The Clojure Community website managed the development process that contains planning documents and an issue tracker.

What is Clojure?

Clojure is the Lisp programming language’s dialect which is a general-purpose programming language. It provides an emphasis on functional programming and runs on the Java virtual machine and the Common Language Runtime. ClojureScript is a dialect that is developed in lockstep with Clojure. The code has been treated as data and the language has a macro system. 1.9 is the latest stable version of Clojure that was released on 8 December 2017.

Who uses Clojure?

  1. Amazon
  2. Apple
  3. eBay
  4. Netflix
  5. Oracle
  6. Otto

What it is used for?

  1. Scraping web pages
  2. Shell scripts
  3. Building websites
  4. Writing web servers
  5. HTML Templating
  6. Running parallel tasks
  7. Playing around with real time audio
  8. Simulations


  1. Allows dynamic, compact code
  2. Java interoperability
  3. Portability and fast garbage collection
  4. Code functions to sequence abstraction
  5. Functional data structures

Average salary

In USA, average income of a Clojure developer is $78,500 per year.

31. Lua


In 1993, Roberto Ierusalimschy, Luiz Henrique de Figueiredo, and Waldemar Celes created Lua in Brazil. SOL (Simple Object Language) and DEL (data-entry language), the data-description/configuration languages, were predecessors of Lua. Scheme over time influenced Lua semantics. Versions prior to 5.0 were licensed under license similar to the BSD license and the MIT License is used to provide license to all the versions from version 5.0 onwards.

What is Lua?

Lua is a programming language which is lightweight and having multiple paradigm and is designed for use in embedded applications. Its interpreter is written in ANSI C and it is a cross-platform. Its API is simple C.

Who uses Lua?

  1. Facebook
  2. Adobe photoshop
  3. AT&T
  4. Crytek
  5. Mashape

What it is used for?

  1. For developing video games
  2. In the request process
  3. For scripting filters
  4. For animating 3D and handling different events
  5. For advanced graphics


  1. Easy to embed as a scripting language
  2. Lightweight
  3. Allows information hiding
  4. A dynamically typed language
  5. Supports only a small number of atomic data structures

Average salary

In USA, average income of a Lua developer is $102,352 per year.

32. Apex


In 2000, Mike Hichwa developed a programming language and named it as Apex. It was developed from scratch and shared some 0f the functionalities of Web DB. Hichwa started the development of project called Flows with the help of Joel Kallman in order to build an internal web calendar. Oracle uses Apex internally to develop its support sites.

What is Apex?

Apex refers to Application Express, developed by Oracle and runs on its database, is a web-based software development environment. To build complex web applications in modern web browsers, Apex is used. It is also a browser-based environment.

Who uses Apex?

  1. Oracle
  2. MDM
  3. Evry
  4. NZbus
  5. infoserve

What it is used for?

Apex is a development software which is basically used to build web applications that can be used in modern web browsers.


  1. Database centric
  2. Fast, easy, and secure
  3. Browse based development
  4. EBS integration

Average salary

In USA, average income of an Apex developer is $87,517 per year.

33. LabVIEW


In April 1983, LabVIEW project was started by National Instruments. The major versions were released in 2005 starting with Labview 8.0. LabView 2017 was released alongside LabVIEW NXG 1.0 which was built on Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF).

What is LabVIEW?

LabVIEW stands for Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench is a system-design and development environment for a visual programming language. It is used for data acquisition, instrument control, and industrial automation on various Operating Systems. LabVIEW 2017 SP1 and LabVIEW NXG 2.0 are the latest versions of LabVIEW which are released in 2018.

Who uses LabVIEW?

  1. Tesla Motors
  2. Analog Devices
  3. Space Exploration Technologies Corp.

What it is used for?

  1. For Automated Manufacturing test
  2. For Automated Product design validation
  3. For condition monitoring of a piece of industrial equipment


  1. Graphical user interface
  2. Drag-and-drop built-in functions
  3. Modular design and hierarchical design
  4. Professional Development Tools
  5. Flexibility and scalability

Average salary

In USA, average income of a LabVIEW developer is $104,463 per year.

34. Scala


In 2001, Martin Odersky started designing Scala at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL). In 2004, Scala was publicly released on Java platform. In March 2006, second version v2.0 was released. A five-year research grant of over €2.3 million was won by Scala team on 17 January 2011 from the European Research Council. To provide commercial support, training, and services for Scala, a company named Typesafe Inc. was launched by Odersky and collaborators on 12 May 2011. Greylock Partners invested $3 million in Typesafe in 2011.

What is Scala?

Scala is a general-purpose programming language that provides functional programming and a strong static type system support. The source code of Scala can be compiled to Java bytecode so that Java virtual machine can be used to to run executable code. Interoperability is provided with Java so that Scala and Java code reference the libraries written in both languages. Functional programming languages features are included in the language.

Who uses Scala?

  1. LinkedIn
  2. Twitter
  3. Netflix
  4. Tumblr
  5. Sony
  6. AirBnB
  7. Apple
  8. Verizon

What it is used for?

  1. For web-applications and APIs
  2. For utilities/libraries
  3. For data streaming
  4. For parallel batch processing
  5. For data analysis with Spark
  6. For AWS Lambda functions
  7. For simple ad hoc scripting


  1. Compatibility with Java
  2. Interoperability
  3. Provides code complexity optimization
  4. Offers concise notation

Average salary

In USA, average income of a Scala developer is $121,185 per year.