List of Top 10 Programming Languages for 2018
In June 1991, the Java language was initiated by James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton, initially named as Oak after the name of oak tree. In 1995, first public implementation was released by Sun Microsystems as Java 1.0. It guaranteed “Write Once, Run Anywhere” (WORA) and didn’t provide any cost run-times on popular platforms.
Sun Microsystems approached the ISO/IEC JTC 1 standards in 1997 and then to the Ecma International to formalize Java, but withdrew from the process very soon. Despite the status of the proprietary software, Sun once provided the most of its implementations free of cost.
Under the terms of GNU General Public License, Much of the Java Virtual Machine was released by Sun on 13 Nov., 2006 as free and open-source software (FOSS). Sun provided all of its JVM’s core code as FOSS on 8 May, 2007.
Java software runs on laptops, data centers, game consoles, and scientific supercomputers.
What is Java?
Java is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented and specifically designed general-purpose computer-programming language that provides very less implementation dependencies. It guaranteed “Write Once, Run Anywhere” (WORA), means that there is no need to recompile the compiled Java code to run on all supported platforms. Portability is the design goal of Java and to achieve this the Java language code has to be compiled to Java bytecode that is an intermediate representation. Java bytecode instructions are executed by virtual machine and are similar to machine code. Host-specific features such as graphics, threading and networking are accessed by using standard libraries. Porting becomes simple by using the universal bytecode. Bytecodes are compiled to machine code during runtime by using Just-in-time (JIT) compilers.
Who uses Java?
Every successful internet size company uses Java to scale massively, such as Amazon - E-Commerce,
Amazon - EC2,
What it is used for?
Java is a fast, secure and reliable language that can be used everywhere from laptops to datacenters, game consoles to scientific supercomputers, cell phones to the Internet.
Advantages of Java
- Easy to use.
- Easy to write, compile, debug and learn.
- Creates modular programs and reusable codes.
- Easily move from one computer to another.
- Security features
In USA, average income of a typical Java developer is $ 89,603 per year.
It is very well used language and new stacks are coming on the fortend. For at least next five years, it will remain the language of interest. As it is easy to learn and developer friendly, it will be around for the next 10 to 15 years. Java is the primary language for Android development so its future seems to lay with Android.
2. C Language
It was the development of the Unix operating system with which the origin of C is tied to. Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson implemented the OS on PDP-7 in assembly language. After that the operating system was ported to PDP 11 which was also written in assembly language. In 1972, the developers started developing C on PDP 11 Unix System and first appeared in Version 2 Unix. The C language had become powerful with the addition of struct types by 1973 that C has been used in the most of Unix kernel till now.
The first addition of The C Programming Language was published by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie in 1978 which was known as K&R.
A standard specification of C was established in 1983 under a committee X3J11 formed by ANSI. The ISO adopted the ANSI C standard in 1990. In 1999, ISO/IEC 9899:1999 was published and referred to as C99. C1x is another revision of the C standard which was officially published in 2011. Non-standard extensions to the C language are required for embedded C programming that can support various features such as fixed-point arithmetic, multiple distinct memory banks, and basic I/O operations.
What is C?
C, that supports structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language in which many unintended operations can be prevented because of its static type system. Constructs have been provided by C that are mapped to machine instructions. Hence, all the applications that are coded in assembly language use C such as operating systems, application softwares for computers and embedded systems.
C, an imperative procedural language, uses straightforward compilers to be compiled, low-level access to memory has been provided, and minimal run-time support has been required. The use of pointers has been supported by C that helps to record the address or location of an object or function in the memory.
Three distinct ways are provided to allocate objects to memory: Static memory allocation, Automatic memory allocation, and Dynamic memory allocation.
Who uses C?
- Embedded systems industry
- OS kernel has been written in C
- Website programming uses C to carry information between the Web application, the server, and the browser.
What it is used for?
C is used to implement operating systems and embedded systems applications because of its portability. It can also be used for website programming because of its speed, stability, and near-universal availability. C is often used to implement compilers, libraries and interpreters of other programming languages. Many end-user applications are also implemented by using C.
Advantages of C Language
- Combined features of both high level and low level languages.
- It acts as a building block for many other languages.
- Highly portable
- Ability to extend itself
- It is a structured programming language.
In USA, the average salary of a C programmer is $72,434 per year.
The C language has been used in embedded systems industry so it has future in microcontroller programming industry. C has a scope in writing the interpreter or compilers for other programming languages. It has scope for developing linux kernels also.
3. C++ Language
A Danish computer scientist, Bjarne Stroustrup, started working on “C with classes” in 1979 which was renamed to C++ in 1983 with the addition of new features such as virtual functions, function name, and operator overloading, so on. Moreover, Cfront compiler was also developed. The first edition of The C++ Programming Language was released in 1985. The name signifies the evolution from the C language. C++ is the third most popular programming language after Java and C as of 2017.
What is C++?
C++, with imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, is a general-purpose programming language that also provides low-level manipulations facility. The main focus of the development of this language is to provide performance, efficiency, and flexibility of use. ISO standardize C++ and its latest standard version is ISO/IEC 14882:2017 also known as C++17. The two main components of C++ are: a direct mapping of hardware features, and zero-overhead abstractions. Four types of memory management is supported by C++: static storage duration objects, thread storage duration objects, automatic storage duration objects, and dynamic storage duration objects. The object-oriented programming (OOP) features to C are introduced by C++. Classes are offered by the language and four features present in OOP are provided such as: abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. There are two parts of C++ standard: the core language and the standard library. C++ has influenced many other programing languages including C#, D, Java, and newer versions of C.
Who uses C++?
- Games: The science fiction game Doom 3 uses C++ engine.
- GUI based applications such as Image Ready, Adobe Premier, Photoshop and Illustrator, are scripted in C++.
- C++ is used to code a part of Google’s back-end.
- C++ is used to code Maya 3D software which is used for integrated 3D modeling, visual effects and animation.
- The software acts as the backbone of various database-based enterprises, such as Google, Wikipedia, Yahoo and YouTube etc.
- Many operating systems including Apple’s OS X and various versions of Microsoft Windows etc. use C++ as an integral part.
What it is used for?
- To develop Graphics related applications like computer and mobile games
- To evaluate mathematical equations.
- To design database like MySQL
Advantages of C++
- Highly portable
- It is an object-oriented language
- Rich function library
- Allows function overloading and exception handling
- Powerful, efficient and fast.
In USA, the average salary of a C++ programmer is $115,308 per year.
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Guido van Rossum at Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) in the Netherlands conceived Python in late 1980’s and started its implementation in December 1989. Van Rossum, Python's principal author, is given a title of Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL) by the Python community. On 16 Oct., 2000, Python 2.0 was released that included many new features such as a cycle-detecting garbage collector and support for Unicode. The process of development become more transparent and community-backed with this release. On 3 Dec., 2008, there was a release of Python 3.0. To improve performance under concurrent workloads, a work was announced by Google on a Python 2.7 to Go transcompiler in January 2017.
What is Python?
Python is a general purpose interpreted high-level programming language. A design philosophy of Python is to emphasize code readability and use of significant whitespace. To enable clear programming on both small and large scales, constructs are provided. It provides automatic memory management and system of a dynamic type. Various programming paradigms are supported by the language such as object-oriented, imperative, functional and procedural, and its standard library is large and comprehensive. The core philosophy of the language includes aphorisms. The language is highly extensible instead of having its functions in core. Instead of using curly brackets or keywords, whitespace indentation is used to delimit the blocks. The statements include: The assignment statement, the if statement, the for statement, the while statement, the try statement, the raise statement, the class statement, the def statement, the with statement, the pass statement, the assert statement, the yield statement, the import statement, and the print statement. There are over 130,000 packages contained in the Python Package Index, with wide range of functionality, including: Graphical user interfaces, Web frameworks, Multimedia, Databases, Networking, Test frameworks, Automation, Web scraping, documentation, system administration, scientific computing, text processing, and image processing.
Who uses Python?
- Inkscape, GIMP, Paint Shop Pro and Scribus are 2D image softwares and use Python
- Python is used by 3D animation packages, like Blender, 3ds Max, Cinema 4D, Houdini, Lightwave and Maya.
- Games such as Civilization-IV, Disney’s Toontown Online, Vega Strike etc. are built using Python.
- Web-frameworks including CherryPy, Django, TurboGears, Bottle, Flask etc are created using Python.
What it is used for?
- Web and Internet Development
- Software Development
- To build ERP and e-commerce systems
- Desktop GUIs
- In scientific and numeric computing
Advantages of Python
- Extensive Support Libraries
- Integration Feature
- Improved Programmer’s Productivity
- Increased speed and productivity
In USA, the average salary of a Python developer is $103,492 per year.
Python has a promising future scope as it supports multiple programming paradigms and has large set of Library and tools. Moreover, it has vast community support and is designed for better code readability. There are various technologies that are counting on Python, such as:
- Artificial intelligence
- Big Data
5. C# Language
A team was formed by Anders Hejlsberg so that a new language had been built and was called COOL i.e. “C-like Object Oriented Language”. The language had been renamed C# in July, 2000 at Professional Developers Conference. The principal designer of C# is Hejlsberg who was also involved in the design of Turbo Pascal, Embarcadero Delphi and Visual J++. C# was called as an “imitation” of Java and it was also considered as sort of Java with reliability, productivity and security deleted. In 2000, Hejlsberg said that C# was not a clone of Java but its design is much closer to C++. in Nov., 2005, C# 2.0 was released as a very different language as compared to Java. the language was approved under ISO standard ISO/IEC 23270:2006.
What is C#?
C# (C Sharp) is a programming language that provides multiple paradigms that includes various programming disciplines such as strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming. The latest version was released in 2017 with name C# 7.2. Common type system (CTS) is the language’s unified type system. The Data types are separated into two categories by CTS such as reference types and value types. In order to convert a value-type object into a value of a corresponding reference type, boxing is used.
Who uses C#?
There are various companies other than Microsoft who use C# such as:
- HP systems
What it is used for?
- To build applications
- In SQL server database
- Develops native apps of iOS, Android, and Windows phone
Advantages of C#
- A lot of documentation or support
- Combination of C and C++ languages
In USA, the average salary of a C# programmer is $64,723 per year.
6. Visual Basic .NET
VB .NET was launched by Microsoft in 2002 with its first release VB 7.0 that relies on .NET Framework 1.0 with managed code as its main feature. In 2003 VB 7.1 was released that relies on .NET Framework 1.1 that supported .NET Compact Framework and wizard had been upgraded. Performance and reliability of .NET IDE and runtime had been improved. After release of .NET 2003, .NET had been dropped from the name by Microsoft and a new version was released with name Visual Basic 2005. On 19 November 2007, along with .NET Framework 3.5, VB 9.0 was released that comprised of many features such as A true conditional operator, Anonymous types, Support for LINQ, Lambda expressions, XML Literals, Type Inference, and Extension methods. VB 2010 was released by Microsoft in 2010. Along with .NET Framework 4.5, Visual Basic 2012 was released that had various features like, Asynchronous programming with "async" and "await" statements, Iterators, Call hierarchy, Caller information, and "Global" keyword in "namespace" statements. VB 14.0 was released in 2015 with Visual studio 2015. In 2017, VB 15.0 was released that relies on Visual Studio 2017 and introduced new refactorings.
What it is used for?
The main use of VB .NET is easy creation of various applications.
What is VB .NET?
Visual Basic .NET (VB .NET), relies on .NET Framework, is an object-oriented programming language that provides multiple paradigms. Visual Studio is the Microsoft’s integrated development environment (IDE) that is used to develop Visual Basic .NET language. Except Visual Studio Express and Visual Studio Community that are freeware, all the Visual studio editions are commercial. To specify actions, statements are used by Visual Basic .NET.
- Totally object-oriented
- Handles pointers indirectly
- Provides managed code execution
- Transfer data between layers using XML
In USA, the average salary of a VB .NET programmer is $94,500 per year.
In 1994, several Common Gateway Interface (CGI) programs were written by Rasmus Lerdorf in C and the development of PHP had been begun. The programs were extended to work with web forms and to deal with databases and named them "Personal Home Page/Forms Interpreter" or PHP/FI. Simple, dynamic web applications were built using PHP/FI. The release of PHP/FI was announced as "Personal Home Page Tools (PHP Tools) version 1.0" in order to accelerate bug reporting and code improvement. In 1997, the base of PHP 3 was formed by Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans by changing the name to PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. After the public testing of PHP 3, in June 1993, it was officially launched. PHP 4 that relies on Zend engine 1.0 was released on 22 May, 2000. PHP 5, powered by new Zend engine II, was launched in July, 2004 that comprised of various new features such as improved support for object-oriented programming, extension of the PHP Data Objects (PDO), and number of enhancements in the performance. Because of lack of support of Unicode at the core language level, mixed reviews were received by PHP. Hence, the International Components for Unicode (ICU) library had been embedded to provide unicode support throughout PHP. PHP 7, a new PHP version was developed during 2014 and 2015 that included new feature. PHP uses a blue elePHPant as its mascot on which PHP is written on the side.
What is PHP?
PHP (Personal Home Page), designed for web development, is a server-side scripting language which is also used as general-purpose programming language. In 1994, Rasmus Lerdorf created it originally. You can embed PHP code into HTML code and it can also be used with web template systems, web content management systems, and web frameworks. A PHP interpreter which is implemented as a module in the web server or as a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) executable, is used to process the PHP code. The results obtained from the interpreted and executed PHP code are combined by the web server. A command-line interface (CLI) may also be used to execute the PHP code and standalone graphical applications can also be implemented using this language. It is easy to port PHP and it can support every operating system and platform and can be deployed free of charge.
Who uses PHP?
There are numerous websites that are using PHP for becoming successful over the years, such as:
What it is used for?
- To create dynamic website.
- To send and receive e-mails.
- To create login pages.
- To encrypt data.
- To handle forms.
Advantages of PHP
- Open source
- Fast speed
- Easy to use
- Powerful library support
- Built-in database connection module
- Run on several platforms.
In USA, the average salary of a PHP developer is $90,635 per year.
- Web Developers and Front-End Engineers
What it is used for?
- To load new page content
- To submit data to the server
- Interactive content
- To validate input values of a Web form
- To transmit information about the users
- Executed on the client side
- Easy to use
- Fast to the end user
- Extended functionality to web pages
In 1970, Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce developed SQL at IBM which was called as SEQUEL (Structured English Query Language). The standard "Database Language SQL" language definition was adopted by ANSI and ISO standard groups by 1986. The most recent version of the language was designed in 2016. Based on System R prototype, IBM started developing the commercial products.
What is SQL?
SQL (Structured Query Language) is a language which is domain-specific and is used in programming and to manage a relational database management system (RDBMS) data or for a relational data stream management system (RDSMS) stream processing. When there are relations between different entities/variables of data, structured data is handled by SQL. There are many types of statements in SQL that are classed as sublanguages and are based on relational algebra and tuple relational calculus. Procedural elements are also included in SQL.
Who uses SQL?
- Adobe Systems
- Cisco Systems
- Sun Microsystems
What it is used for?
- In Excel
- In programming
- In banking
Advantages for SQL
- To retrieve records from a database quickly and efficiently.
- To view the data without storing the data into the object.
- Use long-established standard
- Show one object to user by joining number of tables.
In USA, the average salary of a SQL developer is $85,520 per year.
In 1993, Ruby was conceived by Matsumoto and Keiju Ishitsuka. In December 1995, Ruby 0.95 was released as the first public release. Moreover, various versions of Ruby were released in many successive years such as Ruby 1.0 in 1996, Ruby 1.2 in 1998, Ruby 1.4 in 1999,and Ruby 1.6 in 2000. In 2003, Ruby 1.8 was released that was partially compatible with Ruby 1.9 that was released in 2007. After that various other versions of the language were released but the latest version was released in 2017 with name Ruby 2.5.
What is Ruby?
Ruby is a programming language which is general-purpose, dynamic, reflective, and object-oriented and was influenced by Perl, Smalltalk, Eiffel, Ada, and Lisp. It is a multi-paradigm language that is functional, object-oriented, and imperative. Its memory management is automatic and system is of dynamic type.
Who uses Ruby?
- Rakuten : a online retailer
What it is used for?
- For rapid application development (RAD)
- For storing information in a database
- To create, update, store, and retrieve the data in a database.
- Supports metaprogramming
- Fast to write
- Everything is an object
- Maintainability, simple debugging, and good application performance.
In USA, the average salary of a Ruby developer is $116,309 per year.